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How to purify desi cow breed

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Purifying the desi cow breed of India involves a systematic approach that focuses on selective breeding, proper herd management, and conservation efforts. While it is a long-term process that requires commitment and dedication, here are some steps that can contribute to the purification of the desi(native) cow breeds of India:

India has 37 pure cattle breeds. Five of these — Sahiwal, Gir, Red Sindhi, Tharparkar, and Rathi — are known for their milking prowess. A few others, such as Kankrej, Ongole, and Hariana, belong to dual breeds that have both milch and draught qualities; ie, they are good plough animals. The rest are pure draught breeds.

NameGeographical rangeDescription
GirSaurashtra, GujaratThis breed produces the highest yield of milk amongst all breeds in India. Has been used extensively to make hybrid varieties, in India and in other countries like Brazil.
SahiwalPunjab, Uttar Pradesh, HaryanaThe cow is easily identifiable by its prominent red color
Red SindhiSindh, Pakistan.Now widespread.
RathiBikaner, Rajasthan, Haryana, PunjabRathi is an important milch breed of cattle found in the arid regions of Rajasthan. This breed functions as a major livelihood source for the farmers in this region.
HarianaHaryana, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, RajasthanBullocks are useful for ploughing and transport. Cows are good milkers.
KankrejBhuj, North Gujarat, RajasthanBullocks are strong and hard-working. Among the largest cattle breeds in India
OngoleGuntur, Ongole in Andhra PradeshBullocks are useful for ploughing and cart work/transport. Cows are fair milkers. Has natural resistance to both foot and mouth disease and mad cow disease
Red KandhariMarathwada, Maharashtra.Bullocks are good draught animals. Cows are good milkers.
NimariKhandwa, Madhya PradeshThis is a dual purpose milk and draught breed. Animals are copper colored, with patches of white.
AmritmahalKarnatakaBullocks are well-known for draught power and endurance.
HallikarHassan, Mysore, Tunkur districts of KarnatakaDraught breed both used for road and field agricultural operations. Closely related to Amrit Mahal. However, are much thinner and produce low yields of milk.
NagoriNagore, RajasthanIt is an excellent draught breed. Bullocks are good for draught purposes.
KenkathaBanda, Uttar Pradesh and  Madhya Pradesh border region.Bullocks are small but fairly sturdy animals and good for cultivation in rocky areas.
SiriHills around Darjeeling and Sikkim. Originally from Bhutan.This breed can stand the rugged conditions of the mountains very well. Bullocks are eagerly sought after for draught purposes (ploughing and transport) due to their reputed great strength.
KherigarhKheri, Uttar Pradesh.The cattle of this breed are very active and thrive on grazing only. Bullocks are good for light draught and quick light transport. The cows are poor milkers.
MewatiRajasthanMewati cattle are in general sturdy, powerful and docile and are useful for heavy ploughing, carting and drawing water from deep wells. Cows are said to be good milkers.
Krishna ValleySouthern border of Maharashtra and Andhra PradeshBullocks are powerful and good for heavy ploughing and slower draught purpose. Cows are fair milkers.
VechurKeralaSmallest cow breeds in the world! Bullocks are mainly used for draught purpose. Cows are poor milkers. In the image alongside, the smaller cow is a 16 year old Vechur cow, while the larger cow is a 6-year old cross bred cow.
KangayamTamil Naduv  Kangayam breed is also known as “Kanganad” and “Kongu”. The breeding tract of this breed is Coimbatore, Tripur, Dindigul, Karur and Namakkal district of Tamil Nadu.    This breed derives its name from its habitat – Kangayam taluk of Erode district. v  Bullocks are strong draught animals. Their skin is very strong and tight.
BaraguruTamil Naduv  This is found in the mountainous regions of the Bhavani tk. in Erode dt. Has mixed red and white patterns. v  It has a white coloured cousin in the adjoining western hills. Resembles the Purnaia cattle (Amrut mahal – Hallikar corpus).. v  Maintained to carry out agricultural operations in hilly terrain, this breed is also well known for its trotting ability.
UmblacheryTamil Naduv  A noted draught resistant cattle breed of Tamil Nadu, Umblachery is famous for its sturdiness and strength. v  It derives its name from a small village with same name (Umblachery) considered as native tract of the breed. v  It is also known as “Jathimadu”, “Mottaimadhu”, “Molaimadhu”, “Southern”, “Tanjore” and “Therkuthimadhu”. v  The breeding tract includes Nagapatinam and Thiruvarur districts of Tamil Nadu.
PalamalaiTamil Naduv  Bred in the Palamalai hills in the Mettur taluk of the Salem district and adjoining Anthiyur taluk of Erode dt v  Nearly extinct. Confused with Alambadis and Bargurs, they are black in colour with white patterns.
AlambadiTamil Naduv  Bred in the hilly forest areas of the upper Kaveri basin Mettur (Salem dt.) Pennagaram, Dharmapuri (both in Dharmapuri dt.) Kollegal, Bangalore rural (both in Karnataka state).
Kollimalai – Seravaroyan hill cattle:Tamil Naduv  Looks like a stunted pygmy version of Konga (Kangayam). v  Well suited for the tropical evergreen vegetation and malarial life in the Kolli – Yercaud – Pachamalai – Kalvarayan mountain corpus.
PulikulamTamil Naduv  Pulikulam is a popular draught and game breed of Tamil Nadu. It is named after its village of origin (Pulikulam in Tamil Nadu) and is also known as “Palingu maadu”, “Mani maadu”, “Jallikattu maadu”. v  Madurai, Sivaganda and Virudhunagar districts of Tamil Nadu form its breeding tract.
  1. Identify and Select Purebred Desi Cows:
    • Conduct thorough research to identify desi cow breeds native to your region, such as Gir, Sahiwal, Red Sindhi, or Tharparkar.
    • Connect with local breeders, veterinary experts, and organizations specializing in desi cow conservation to acquire purebred desi cows.
    • Ensure the cows you acquire have documented lineage and meet the breed standards.
  2. Maintain Genetic Purity:
    • Implement strict breeding practices to prevent crossbreeding with other breeds. Keep the desi cows separated from other cattle breeds to avoid accidental crossbreeding.
    • Maintain accurate records of each cow’s pedigree, including details of their ancestry, date of birth, and other relevant information.
    • Use artificial insemination (AI) techniques to ensure controlled breeding and maintain genetic purity. Work with skilled veterinarians experienced in desi cow breeding.
  3. Practice Selective Breeding:
    • Identify high-quality desi cows with desirable traits such as milk production, adaptability to local conditions, disease resistance, and conformation.
    • Carefully select bulls with exceptional genetic characteristics for breeding purposes. Ensure the chosen bull is purebred and possesses the desired traits you want to preserve or enhance in the desi cow breed.
    • Monitor and track the offspring’s characteristics to assess their suitability for future breeding. Continuously refine your breeding program by selecting the best individuals to maintain and improve the desi cow breed’s purity.
  4. Optimal Herd Management:
    • Provide a clean and healthy environment for your desi cows. Ensure adequate shelter, clean water, nutritious feed, and proper veterinary care to maintain their well-being.
    • Implement sustainable grazing practices, allowing the desi cows to forage on natural pastures whenever possible.
    • Regularly monitor the health of the herd and promptly address any medical issues or diseases through appropriate veterinary interventions.
  5. Collaborate with Conservation Organizations:
    • Engage with local and national organizations dedicated to desi cow conservation. They can provide valuable guidance, resources, and support to help you in your purification efforts.
    • Participate in breeding programs and initiatives led by these organizations to exchange knowledge, share experiences, and contribute to the overall conservation and purity of desi cow breeds.
  6. Promote Awareness and Education:
    • Educate local communities, farmers, and consumers about the value of desi cow breeds and the importance of preserving their genetic purity.
    • Organize workshops, seminars, and awareness campaigns to promote the benefits of desi cow milk, its cultural significance, and its role in sustainable agriculture.

Remember, purifying the desi cow breed requires patience, perseverance, and long-term commitment. Collaborating with experts and organizations, following sound breeding practices, and raising awareness about the significance of desi cows will contribute to the successful preservation and purification of these valuable breeds.

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